The emergence of Hinduism
It is not an easy task to explain to Hinduism, because it does not exist THE Hinduism upon closer inspection. Historically, the term Hinduism dates back to the time of the Mughal invasions (7th century) in India. The first conquest led the Islamic Mogul only to the river Sindu (Indus or, as it is called today), which meant that all the inhabitants were designated beyond this river as Sindus (or Hindus). Thus, the term Hindu in its origin includes all forms of culture, religion and philosophy, which have been subject from the perspective of Islamic Moguls beyond the Indus, and are themselves used more or less. Vedic Hinduism to those flows can be counted, which have evolved from the pre-Buddhist religion and are philosophically aligned with the Veda. Although today spoken by the Vedas and including the religious-philosophical literature is meant the Veda originally regarded as sound revelation of God, which was passed on by word of mouth in long teacher-student succession from one generation to the next. Indian thought reflects the belief that there can be a religion not only, but many religions, be many different ways must help the different species depending on the time, place and circumstances find their individual path to the divine. This also explains why long time only very sparsely existed the ancient Vedic scriptures revelations. Only the English occupying power insisted to fix this wisdom in speaking and writing, as she was accustomed from their own religion and culture here. The spiritual disciple succession of ancient India, however, saw in the written fixation rather the risk of associated paralysis and reduction of the saints.
The religion of the Vedic period was called Brahmanism (around 1200v Chr.). From it emerged around the middle of the 1st millennium BC. Chr. Hinduism.
Just as there is not only a religion for all people, there is not only one Dharma (religious duty) for all people. Dharma is a broad term which is derived from the Sanskrit root dhri: what bears – that which supports the universe.
The diversity of the Dharma finds its application in the Vedic social order, the Varnaashram-Dharma (Varna: state, class, caste, Ashram: here based on the life stages; Dharma: the corresponding religious / social obligations). As Varna traditionally are four objects:
First Brahmins (priests)
Second Kshatriyas (warrior nobility)
3 Vaishyas (traders and farmers)
4 Shudras (servants and artisans)
Then there were the outcastes, who had to perform “dirty” work. In India, there are over 2000 box today. In the reality of today’s India, this traditional Varna system has, however, long since replaced by a birth system, the people according to the family in which they are born, a certain caste assigns. In this way the system was originally exploited to create a class system that solely the exploitation of artificially created lower classes of society is, of which there are many in recent times.
The second area of Varnaashram-Dharma are the ashrams or stages of life. Here, four stages can be distinguished:
Brahmacarya: the time of learning (student)
Grihastha: takes the time in which man founds a household and in society many duties
Vanaprastha: the time when man passes his obligations to devote himself increasingly spiritual quest
Sannyasa: the monastic life, as the man solely dedicated to the self-knowledge.
The last two stages of life are trodden only by the people who feel a natural inclination to spiritual issues or yoga practices.
As a basic idea of dharma applies the understanding that each person understands individually and with the help of the teacher (guru), saints (sadhus) and divine revelation (shastra), which tasks fall to him in this life. Thus, the Dharma to the bridge that leads him across the chasm of the finite to the infinite its current incarnation of his eternal inner existence.
Another unifying element of all currents, is the belief in reincarnation and the law of karma. The death is considered as a transition between the different incarnations in the wheel of Samsara (the cycle of rebirth). The constant coming again of souls is basically understood as a kind of school of life, where they can learn according to the different yoga paths to love motivlos (bhakti-yoga), to let emerge from knowledge wisdom (jnana-yoga) and their thoughts and actions completely purify (karma-yoga). It is designed to provide the creatures support the Vedic doctrine of virtue, its nature to purify (consciousness) and in the state of completely pure consciousness liberation (mukti) to obtain from the wheel of rebirth, either to unite passively with the Infinite or actively as spiritual -individual beings to learn beyond the shackles of time and space.
As a basic insight of Indian karma doctrine various traditions may apply: The creatures – their characteristics, abilities and life circumstances – are the result of their own internal and external operations, not something accidental, but something that falls to them, listened to them. The living entities are, what they have done themselves. The seed of joy and sorrow that befalls them is in their own actions and in their own developments.
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